The Histological Effect of Alcohol on the Liver and Kidney of Animals

Abrha, Nigus (2014) The Histological Effect of Alcohol on the Liver and Kidney of Animals. Masters thesis, Addis Ababa University.

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Alcohol consumption represents the third largest risk factor for disease burden in most countries of the world. Alcohol can damage nearly every organ and system in the body such as liver and kidney. Alcohol is eliminated from the body by various metabolic mechanisms. The primary enzymes involved in these metabolic mechanisms are aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), cytochrome P450 (CYP2E1), and catalase. Variations in the genes for these enzymes have been found to influence alcohol consumption, alcohol-related tissue damage, and alcohol dependence. The consequences of alcohol metabolism include oxygen deficits (i.e., hypoxia) in the liver; interaction between alcohol metabolism by products and other cell components, resulting in the formation of harmful compounds (i.e., adducts); formation of highly reactive oxygen-containing molecules (i.e., reactive oxygen species) that can damage other cell components; tissue damage; fetal damage; cancer; and medication interactions. The effects of alcohol on various tissues depend on its concentration in the blood i.e. blood alcohol concentration over time. Blood alcohol concentration (BAC) is determined by how quickly alcohol is absorbed, distributed, metabolized, and excreted. BAC is influenced by the rate of alcohol drinking, the presence of food in the stomach, and the type of alcoholic beverage, variations in the principal alcoholmetabolizing enzymes namely alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase. Alcohol readily diffuses across membranes and distributes through all cells and tissues, and at these concentrations, it can acutely affect cell function by interacting with certain proteins and cell membranes. Alcohol metabolism also results in the generation of acetaldehyde that may contribute to tissue damage, the formation of damaging molecules known as ROS, and a change in the redox state of liver cells. Understanding the balance of alcohol’s removal and the accumulation of potentially damaging metabolic byproducts, as well as how alcohol metabolism affects other metabolic pathways, is essential for appreciating both the shortterm and long-term effects of the body’s response to alcohol intake (Zakhari, 2006).

Item Type: Thesis (Masters)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Alcohol, Liver, Kidney, Necrosis and Degenerative change
Subjects: Q Science > Q Science (General)
Q Science > QM Human anatomy
R Medicine > R Medicine (General)
Divisions: Africana
Depositing User: Vincent Mpoza
Date Deposited: 21 Jun 2018 09:16
Last Modified: 21 Jun 2018 09:16

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