Ethiopia Field Epidemiology Training Program (EFETP)

Argata, Ashenafi (2013) Ethiopia Field Epidemiology Training Program (EFETP). Masters thesis, Addis Ababa University.

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Introduction: Relapsing fever is a recurrent febrile infection caused by various Borrelia spiroch etes transmitted either by lice (epidemic louse born relapsing fever LBRF) or by ticks (endemic tick born relapsing fever TBRF). It was once a disease of global epidemic importance. However, largely as a result of the demise of the clothing louse Pediculus humanus, it is now restricted to a reas where clothing lice are still common place. Two species of Borrelia are associated with a relatively high rate of relapsing fever–related fatality include B recurrentis (the cause LBRF and the focus of this study) and B duttoni (the cau se of TBRF). The body louse spreads during direct contact with infected people or indirectly whe n infested clothing is shared. In the 1st half the 20th century there were 50 million affected by RF with case fatality rates of 10% - 40%. Largest epidemics claimed 1 million lives during World w ars I and II. Epidemics have been common in overcrowded situations with poor hygiene, children and women are more affected.Relapsing fever was the 7th most common cause of hospital admis sion and 5th most common cause of death in Ethiopia in 2004. Laboratory confirmed RF cases w ere identified in prison camps of Bahirdar and Mekele during civil war in Ethiopia in 1991. Several confirmed cases of RF were identified in Yirgalem town prison in January 2012. The p urpose of this investigation was to determine magnitude and etiology of the outbreak, to identify risk factors and risk group and use findings to undertake evidence based interventions. 2 Methods: Surveillance data of RF from line list and log books were reviewed. Clinical examinat ion of suspect cases was done. Blood samples were taken from suspected cases and laboratory te sted using Gimisa stain. Thick blood film was used. A case control study was conducted on 78 cases and 108 controls. Data were analyzed using Excel, Epi – Info 3.5.1 and ARC GIS was used to create maps. Results: From2604 prisoners a total of 831 cases and 1 death registered from January 15 to Feb. 14, 2012 in prison and after two weeks, due to relapse, 24 cases were confirmed and treated.The overall attack rate was 32% and case fatality rate 0.12%. Among cases 100% (831) were males a nd the age range from 15 to 78 years, median age 20, Mode 20 and mean age 22. From total su spected cases 560 (67%) were laboratory tested and 345 (62%) were confirmed cases of relapsin g fever as evidenced by presence of Borrelia recurrentis spps. in the thick blood samples tested. F rom total cases 823(99%), 780 (94%), 771 (93%), 756 (91%) and 20 (2.4%) developed, head ach e, vomiting, fever, Chills and jaundice respectively. From respondents of the case contol study 29/78(37%) cases and 57/108(53%) took a body bath weekly (OR = 0.52, 95% CI (0.29-0.96) and From total cases 63/ 78 and 101/108 controls were literate, OR=0.29,95%CI (0.1-0.75),the association was also significant. 37/78 cases and 66/108 controls wash their clothes weekly (OR = 0.57, 95% CI, (0.30-1.02), which was not significant. Conclusion & Recommendations: Overcrowding, close contact , water shortage and gap in kee ping personal hygiene in the prison contributed to the outbreak, The outbreak was contained due to prompt intervention measures taken and intervention activities were recommended to prevent t he emergence of future outbreaks of relapsing fever.

Item Type: Thesis (Masters)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Crowding, close contact, Borrelia recurrentis, Relapsing fever, Sidama, Ethiopia
Subjects: R Medicine > RA Public aspects of medicine > RA0421 Public health. Hygiene. Preventive Medicine
Divisions: Africana
Depositing User: Vincent Mpoza
Date Deposited: 02 Jul 2018 10:47
Last Modified: 02 Jul 2018 10:47

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